For wireless transmission, there are actually two frequency bands available for most of the Wi-Fi Routers, 2.4 GHz frequency band and 5 GHz frequency band. Both of the frequency bands provide the internet coverage but there are some basic differences between both of the band which distinguish them from each other.
The range of the 2.4 GHz frequency band is much more than that of the 5 GHz. The 2.4 GHz frequency band has a longer range and provides coverage at a large area as compared to the 5 GHz frequency. This difference in the range is due to the fact that a 5 GHz frequency band has a higher frequency and thus it cannot penetrate solid objects such as concrete walls, comparatively, 2.4 GHz frequency band can penetrate objects and thus has a longer range.
While the range of the 2.4 GHz frequency band is greater than the 5 GHz band, but the 5 GHz band can transmit data at a much faster speed as compared to the 2.4 GHz band. As the frequency increases, the rate of data transmission also increases and thus 5 GHz bands transmit data at faster speeds as compared to 2.4 GHz bands.
Both of the frequency bands are unique in their own ways. The 2.4 GHz frequency band provides coverage at a longer range but the data transmission speed is slow, while the 5 GHz band provides coverage at a shorter range but transmits data at faster speeds.
Your Wi-Fi connection on either of these frequency bands can be faster or slower. This is because most of the Wi-Fi and wireless devices, by default, use the 2.4 GHz frequency band and this includes almost all the wireless devices.
When multiple devices use the same radio frequency then overcrowding may occur and as a result, you may experience slower speeds on 2.4 GHz band. As far as the 5 GHz band is concerned then they usually have no overcrowding because only a few devices use it, therefore, you can experience much faster speeds on 5 GHz band, but again if you need range then 2.4 GHz is the optimal choice while for faster data transmission, you should prefer 5 GHz band.